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  • An energy harvesting project

    Hi all,

    For the last three years, I have been working to obtain unequivocal evidence that a Bedini-style generator can harvest energy from the local environment. In particular, as someone who trained and worked as a scientist and a science teacher in the UK and is now retired, my aim is to present clear evidence of the harvesting phenomenon and to publish that data in a suitable scientific journal. So far I have found nothing in the mainstream literature addressing this specific topic, probably in part for fear of ridicule.

    To this end, I have built a ‘Pulsed Flyback Generator’ and spent a large part of this year testing it with regard to a range of variables that can affect its performance. Up to this point, I have focused on measuring its CoP and finding out the optimum settings for best-charging performance. (Thanks to Gary Hammond for his help on the measurement approach).

    The testing is not complete in that I have yet to undertake power tests that bring any hidden factors to bear, and these tests will add further weight and confirmation to the CoP data already obtained.

    My aim in all this is not to bring some form of generator to market but rather, as a ‘curiosity-driven’ project, to show the scientific community clear evidence that energy can be extracted from the ‘environment’ by an open electronic system. Particularly for many electrical engineers, an open system does not compute and the notion of using the term CoP outside of heat transfer is anathema.

    What good data there is has usually been kept within the walls of interested groups and forums like this. However, with my aged links to the ‘establishment’ and universities, my long-term aim is to get further replication done and add weight to the issue of open systems and energy extraction from the quantum vacuum, what Tesla and others have referred to as radiant energy.

    My project does not directly examine where the energy comes from and the mechanisms involved (such as vacuum biasing) but it is of course natural to speculate. In my view, the only viable source of the energy gain is the quantum vacuum and I’m in contact with Tom Valone and others in the US on that aspect. It will probably require a specially designed experimental setup to investigate that hypothesis but in the meantime, my own view is that the theories of Ilya Prigogine on ‘far from equilibrium’ states and negative entropy as well as the Geometrodynamics of John Wheeler are relevant in this phenomenon.

    I plan to write the scientific paper at the start of the new year largely based on the power tests that are soon to start. Due to the much better than expected performance, I need to upgrade the PCB, and in particular the relays, to cope with currents up to 20A instead of the 3A originally designed for. Meanwhile, I have written various documents presenting the evidence so far and, while I am keen not to risk interfering with the evidence related to the forthcoming paper, I am happy to provide a link to one interim report (not written in scientific paper format) showing the methodology, equipment and evidence of some of the CoP values obtained so far. This might provide some inspiration to others who are embarking on this journey.

    If there is one overarching finding I would state after all my work then it is this: one needs to optimize all the factors based on the unique properties of a specific build. The factors so far tested include PWM PRF and duty cycle, coil voltage (i.e. number of batteries in series), battery capacity and chemistry, charging point on the charging profile, and the battery swap interval.

    With my build designed to allow for the testing of all these variables, when these are optimized, then I have now reached CoPs of more than 10 (compared to around 2-3 when not optimized) using HV pulses of a little over 1kV applied directly to the battery. When towards the end of this year I get to increase the peak HV towards 2kV (by changing some active components) the results are likely to increase significantly. These values translate to power levels of 100-200W which is a modest output but scientifically speaking highly significant.

    Since the pdf file is 9MB and can't be attached to this post, here is a link to my Mega account and one document that I’m happy to share at this time. Others will follow as and when my paper is published next year.

    https://mega.nz/file/8IVVCaqS#yJDmYb...YDIRczxxz9fUt8

    I’m not going to distract myself with too much discussion on this forum about it as I’m rather busy but I felt prompted to present this now as we head into a difficult winter for many, not least for reasons of energy availability!

    Blessings

    Julian
    Last edited by JulesP; 11-01-2022, 04:44 AM.
    'Consciousness came First'

  • #2
    Hi Julian, Gary,
    First of all thanks for sharing your elaborate report.
    I was wondering how rigid your statement is “I’m not going to distract myself with too much discussion on this forum”?
    I ask this since I’d be very keen to try to reproduce your setup (and ideally your results); as mentioned on the other thread, my thought were already going in this direction. But I will have a ton of questions… Ask Gary; the thread were Gary talks about his results with his Bedini SG was 2 pages long before I joined the forum, now we are at 14 pages; that is 12 pages of just questions from my side and answers from Gary hahaha…
    But the upside is I’m not a ‘an arm chair critic’ as Paul Babcock would call it; I build, and ask the question to understand and learn/improve what I’ve build. But judging on the (enormous) help so far I received from Gary, I’m sure he would be able to help out with quite some of my questions too .

    I’ll await your response on the above before diving in, but have some small questions regarding your report:

    Page 4
    “2. Using the ‘Discharge’…. take about 1hour”.
    Question 1: I read “…a discharge current of 3,000mA.”. That seems to contradict “…discharging 1 Ah….take about 1 hour”. I’d expect here -> Discharging 1Ah takes 20minutes.
    Question2: I haven’t experimented with Lithium batteries so far, so not sure how they behave/hold up to such a relative big discharge current (3A) compared to their capacity (7Ah). Any particular reason why you used such a high current, in relation to its capacity?


    Page 9 / 11
    Table 3 / Table 5
    Question / Remark: What a huge impact on COP does it have according to your data changing the pulse frequency from 100Hz to 108Hz… Just makes me wonder: You could have started at any number/frequency and be far off… but I assume you’ve done extensive testing at some point realized that in the area of 100Hz things got interesting…


    Best regards,
    Rodolphe
    Last edited by pearldragon; 11-12-2022, 04:58 AM.

    Comment


    • #3
      What I mean is that I'm getting even busier than usual and don't want to get too bogged down in needless exchanges about semantics or other discussions but I'm happy to contribute to build details.

      To answer your questions: My statement in brackets is an example of a calculation of discharging 1Ah in 1 hour and I should have specified 1A. But in practice, I used 3A for the battery to bring that down to 20-30mins depending on actually how much I wanted to discharge. With the 18Ah Li battery, I used 5A. Just depends on what's convenient but I will tweak the paragraph

      Lithium batteries perform much better and give higher CoPs. They can handle higher continuous current discharges (for an external load as well as the circuit) and are more consistent regarding the voltages they get to after discharging and charging. The 7Ah LiFePO4 battery can handle 7A continuously or at least as long as the swap interval.

      Regarding the PRF, I did some preliminary tests a while back and found 100Hz did quite well so I have focused on that area but I have also used up to 1k to get comparative values. When you start to plot them then you see a trend and so plan the next run to see if it goes higher or lower etc. and you gradually zoom in on the optimum values.

      I attach a section of one of the summary tables from one of my many spreadsheets, where one experiment category might have several sub-sections each with its own spreadsheet. Even with two tests a day it has taken me over 5 months to get all this data. That does mean that I can start the power tests using settings that are optimized.

      I can't recall if I attached my 'Load Testing' plan but here it is anyway.
      Attached Files
      'Consciousness came First'

      Comment


      • #4
        While I'm putting material up, I have just written a sort of guide for those who have become 'stuck' and unable to get the CoP over 1 for this type of generator. It's just a set of suggestions based on the last three years of work and such details shouldn't interfere with my proposed scientific paper that I will write in the new year.

        I attach it here in the hope that it may help some experimenters and at the end of the document there is a link to a set of folders that I put together for another forum with a selection of materials.
        Attached Files
        Last edited by JulesP; 11-06-2022, 11:55 AM.
        'Consciousness came First'

        Comment


        • #5
          Hi Julian,

          Thanks for responding with the the above posts and attached files. This info will be very helpful to all of us experimenting with these devices.

          Gary Hammond,

          Comment


          • #6
            Hi all,

            In response to an inquiry about the essential elements of a generator, as opposed to all the elements that I needed to build in to test the phenomenon, I have added a couple of paragraphs on page 9 of the Suggestions doc to summarise what I believe are the essential ones. There is no point in building everything unless you are particularly keen to find out for yourself if they contribute much - and there is nothing wrong with that I have added that to the Mega folder as v2 and also attach it here.

            Also, putting myself in the shoes of the keen 'garage enthusiasts', I have decided to try and design a revised PCB, together with guidance notes for assembly, before Xmas this year. This will consist of the circuit schematics and grabs of the PCB together with the Gerber files, so you can go to any PCB manufacturer and run off some boards relatively cheaply. There will also be a component list to aid construction. There will also soon be a doc on the setup of the timing circuit on the battery swapper using the 4060 decade counter chip that has worked very well.

            Lastly, I feel it is only reasonable that I give some information about my background that has contributed and led to this work and so I have added a 'Mini Biog/CV' as well.

            Happy discovery
            Attached Files
            'Consciousness came First'

            Comment


            • #7
              Hi Julian, Thanks so much for posting all these docs! I'll be off the radar for a bit reading through them, will report back here once done
              Last edited by pearldragon; 11-12-2022, 04:57 AM.

              Comment


              • #8
                I have now completed the 'Battery Swapper & Timer Circuit' document that explains in detail how the CD4060 decade counter is used to precisely set the swap interval. This has been added to the Docs folder on the Mega link and is also attached here.

                My plan to have a revised set of files for an updated PCB, based on my findings, is on track for early December. That should make life easier for some of you.

                Meanwhile, I have an added set of experiments to undertake using a bank of supercapacitors instead of a battery to make measurements of the charging and energy gain. This should offset suggestions that the phenomenon is an artifact of battery chemistry. At the moment I have no idea how that will pan out but I will post results as and when I get them.

                Happy reading.

                Jules
                Attached Files
                'Consciousness came First'

                Comment


                • #9
                  Hi Julian,

                  I’ve read through your Interim report again and have the following question:
                  Page 12 Figure 10 (and accompanying text)
                  Is my assumption correct here that this peak COP of the third dot has a direct relation with the set ‘on- time’ of the frequency timer (and also inductance of the coil). In other words, what you see in figure 10, is that the first 2 dots show that the magnetic field in the coil was not yet fully built up, and in the 4th dot, the magnetic field was fully built up and the applied ‘too high voltage’ resulting in wasting energy by maintaining the magnetic field (current) longer than necessary?


                  Regarding “Suggestions to help achieve a Cop >1”
                  Page3 DGH10i1800PA diode
                  This diode I could not find in anywhere (google.com/
                  rs-online.com/jinftry.com)
                  Page4 Coil and their numbers / “Peak spike Voltage”
                  -What was the outer ? of the rod that you used, do you have a link to the specs/shop?
                  -When you’d go to higher peak voltage, do you intend to do this with air coils? (so no iron in the core)
                  -When you measured the inductance of the coils in parallel, did you do that with a potmeter in series with the coils, and then a connected the coils + potmeter to a frequency generator?

                  In the pictures of your shared folder I saw that you used a hand coil turner. That took quite a while to turn 5x2600turns I assume?? Considering that these coils are not the last ones I need, I’m considering buying an automatic winder, incl shipping cost a Chinese one cost +/- E800,-
                  E.a.: https://www.ebay.nl/itm/165753660082...Bk9SR669tLaNYQ


                  For making your PCBs (they look great), which software did you use?
                  Although I probably use your PCB files when you update/upload them, I’m curious to see via YouTube how complex it is to use the software, might be a skill I’ll be picking up too..


                  Best regards,
                  Rodolphe
                  Last edited by pearldragon; 11-12-2022, 08:27 AM. Reason: updates some typos

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Hi Rodolphe,

                    The graph shows the measured CoP when the voltage across the coils was adjusted while keeping the PRF etc the same. The reason for the fall off either side may be due to several factors, one of which is that the higher voltage results in more current in the coils and so a greater energy input and so the CoP value will be pulled down. You may wonder why increasing the voltage and therefore the magnetic field in the coils does not have a bigger effect on the battery when the pulses reach it. That is so far unknown as I don't know the energetic pathways involved. It is not clear if there is a quality of the pulses that is not just expressed as its peak voltage (>1kV) but also the amount of charge it can induce (in addition to whatever it may be doing to the vacuum possibly). So there is probably another dimension to the pulse that we can't see on just a V/t graph. I am not measuring the saturation of the coils with different currents and so have no figures for how saturated the coil is. But making measurements of CoP at different voltages can make a noticeable difference to the results. Also, the optimum coil voltage is a function of the battery too in that for some 13.0V gave a better reading than 12.5. It's another variable to play with which is why I have included connections to a Buck and a Boost Converter in my circuit and the revised one to come.


                    Regarding the diode, it seems I swapped around the 2nd and 3rd letters. It should be DHG and I attach the spec sheet. Sorry for that; I have corrected it in the doc and uploaded it to the files.

                    Regarding the coils, the ferrite rods are 16.4mm in diameter. They were ordered in 2018 on eBay but the order history does not go that far so I will look around when I have the time.

                    I have no plans to use air coils since that will reduce the magnetic flux in the coils. But since I can argue that the voltage at the FET drain is limited by the FEt itself then you could probably do away with the ferrite cores and have the same voltage pulses. Worth a try.

                    I measured the combined inductance with a type of multimeter that is used for checking transistors etc. I would not worry about the value based on what I wrote above. The FET will nearly always be the factor that determines your peak voltage.

                    Each coil took me about 10mins to wind by hand. As it gets thicker then more wire is wound on per revolution. If you think it's worth the money go ahead but I was happy to turn a handle for a while. I did all five coils in one day.

                    I made the PCB using https://easyeda.com/ so it's all online and you don't need to download a client. I have learned how to do them over the past few years and there is a forum and plenty of documentation to help.

                    Julian
                    Attached Files
                    Last edited by JulesP; 11-12-2022, 09:02 AM.
                    'Consciousness came First'

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Hi Julian,

                      I just ordered the copper for 5 coils: 2 off -> 7.5lb AWG 21. Pricy stuff...

                      I am not measuring the saturation of the coils with different currents and so have no figures for how saturated the coil is.
                      That was what I meant/assuming with my post. That with the third dot you're more or less right at the point of coil saturation.

                      Regarding the diode, it seems I swapped around.
                      I guesses something like that happened, so I tried to google on just parts of it, but couldn't find it either

                      Regarding the coils, the ferrite rods are 16.4mm in diameter. They were ordered in 2018 on eBay but the order history does not go that far so I will look around when I have the time
                      Thanks for the diameter, don't worry about the other specs/link if you don't have them handy: I'll probably be using welding rods for the core.

                      Each coil took me about 10mins to wind by hand.
                      Thanks for that info! then That machine is NOT worth the money haha.
                      I'm now either considering something simple like this:

                      https://nl.aliexpress.com/item/32819...yAdapt=glo2nld

                      Or otherwise I'll go for some manual winder like you used...

                      I have no plans to use air coils since that will reduce the magnetic flux in the coils. But since I can argue that the voltage at the FET drain is limited by the FEt itself then you could probably do away with the ferrite cores and have the same voltage pulses. Worth a try.

                      I measured the combined inductance with a type of multimeter that is used for checking transistors etc. I would not worry about the value based on what I wrote above. The FET will nearly always be the factor that determines your peak voltage.
                      It will reduce the magnetic flux, and your FET might be the limiting factor for the peak voltage, but the dV/dt will go up because of the greatly reduced inductance, assuming that the rest of the circuit can handle the speed. But this is just me guessing and repeating information from the presentation of Paul Babcock*, which I guess Gary already has sent the link from to you.
                      Out of my own interest; could you tell me which multimeter it is that you used for this inductance measurement; would like to have a look at it.

                      *https://emediapress.com/shop/they-ar...e-vs-air-core/

                      Best Regards,
                      Rodolphe

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        I might try and measure the peak voltage and rise time with no ferrite cores and see what happens. So far using 1.5kV instead of 1.04 and 1.1kV is beneficial in most of the tests.


                        Two links for the type of meter are:

                        https://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/403872715...SMAAOSwA5di8iB


                        https://www.aliexpress.com/item/1005...uctlist.0.0.11
                        'Consciousness came First'

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Hi all,

                          As some of you are keen to have a go at a build and have been asking about the main components etc., I attach the wiring diagram for the 'replication' circuit and have uploaded it to the 'Circuits' folder on the same Mega link. If anyone new to this thread needs the link again let me know and I will post it.

                          As discussed elsewhere, this is an updated PCB to the one I have been using for all my tests and is based on my findings of what works and what doesn't as, in my opinion, is not worth the effort and cost including parts that contribute little or nothing to the performance. This significantly simplifies the design, build, and components required.

                          The new PCB has now been designed and is off at https://jlcpcb.com/ for printing at the moment. I will assemble this board and replace my current one to check that everything works before I release it for others to use as Gerber files. Also, I have to write an extensive 'assembly manual' explaining everything about it, together with a parts list, and I hope to have that, and the board checked, by mid-December. Meanwhile, some of you may find the attached circuit helpful to use with what you already have or are compiling by other means.

                          A fascinating trip around the facility where these PCBs are made can be seen here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ljOoGyCso8s&t=1423s


                          Click image for larger version

Name:	Generator Wiring Diagram (Replication).jpg
Views:	47
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                          Last edited by JulesP; 11-15-2022, 04:30 AM.
                          'Consciousness came First'

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Hi Julian,

                            In regards to #12
                            So far using 1.5kV instead of 1.04 and 1.1kV is beneficial in most of the tests.
                            Is this your conclusion based on testing with the STW12N150K5 Mosfet in combination with DHG10i1800PA diode?
                            (waiting at the moment for a second RFQ for the diodes and Mosfets)

                            In reagrds to #13
                            Also, I have to write an extensive 'assembly manual' explaining everything about it, together with a parts list, and I hope to have that, and the board checked, by mid-December.
                            Ok, great to hear! In the next on my list was having a look at the other components in your circuit, and for sure I would have questions about the exact parts you used, but I will practice a bit of patience then, if you plan to upload a parts list .

                            Best regards Rodolphe

                            Last edited by pearldragon; 11-15-2022, 01:33 PM.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Hi Rodolphe,

                              Yes, I have now tried the120k5, 150k5 and 170k5 with the 1800 diode. There is small improvement on CoP between the 95k5 and the120 and a bigger change between the 120 and the 150 but not so noticeable between the 150 and 170. Some battery formats (Ah and chemistry type) have a bigger improvement than others. Best CoP so far with an 18Ah LiFePO4 battery is 53.2 but I can’t say what that translates to in continuous Watts until I do power tests at the start of the year.

                              From my few tests so far with the supercapacitors, it appears that the battery chemistry is central to the phenomenon. That might mean that the pulses affect the chemical bonds in a way that draws vacuum energy in, just as with cavitation in water which is considered by some to draw in ZPE for the reentrant jets. This is just my speculation re the chemical bonds and I will need to consult with those who are working on that particular front.

                              For the best overall performance, without a big increase in Rds (Drain-Source resistance), the 150 works well but my new board will allow two FETs to be installed and then jumpers to select which one fires.

                              I would be ok with uploading a parts list for the forthcoming PCB within the next week if anyone wants a head start on that issue. It’s going to be 99% correct. The other components for the rest of the device will come in December.

                              J

                              'Consciousness came First'

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