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Thread: "Enhanced Generator" from JPKBook

  1. #101
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    Extracting >500W from a solid state generator

    Hi all,

    Recently I have been pondering and playing with various designs and configurations to allow upwards of 1000W to be drawn from a high frequency (>1kHz) HV pulse solid state device. The problem is that if a suitable inverter is being supplied from a 12V battery then the current demand to supply 1000W is going to be of the order of 83A. The use of a capacitor here is helpful, for not only does it translate the radiant energy to its 'positive' form but it benefits from the 'electret' effect. Even so, when the capacitor supplies current to the inverter it is going to have to deliver the very high amperage to provide the power.

    My suggestion at this stage is shown in the 'Battery Config 3' pic. Here I have increased the number of batters to 4 offering 48V to the inverter and reducing the current drawn to 25% of that at 12V so 1kW will be approaching 21A. The voltage across the 10uf capacitor is anchored to 48V by the batteries and supplies the current to the inverter. If the voltage on the capacitor rises above 48V, for example when the inverter is not drawing any power, then it passes that energy to the battery stack via the three diodes. Note that the battery stack itself cannot deliver any power to the inverter through the reversed bias diodes. This is a test that the 'developer' has done to confirm that the LEDs that he used as the load, were being powered only by the HV and not using any battery power.

    The circuit itself then draws its power from either a Buck Converter fed from the 48V stack, or by a direct feed from the bottom 12V battery in the stack. Which option is best would depend on how the back feed through the diodes was distributed amongst the batteries.

    Any thoughts about this suggestion would be appreciated.

    Jules
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  2. #102
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    Rotor generator and revised battery swapper

    Hi all,

    I wanted to update on the modifications I have made to the rotor based system with the addition of an effective battery swapper. When I built and installed the first one, it was found that both batteries had some current drain all the time and that was to feed either the transistor bases or the timer and relay circuit, even though the main coil current was alternated. So I revised the design so that each battery is fully in either charge or discharge mode. This included the use of a 39,000uf capacitor to supply the timer and relay circuit during the relay's brief switch over. The swap time is set to 30 seconds and this revised circuit is attached as 'Battery Swapper (Revised)'. I also have a 3 min video of the whole generator running at: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/kjcs6exru...YqrlyIyWa?dl=0

    As I say in the video, the rotor speed may be pivotal in delivering the required rate of pulses to keep the system self sustaining and to power an additional external load although I doubt these things behave in a logical manner. The break point for self running I believe to be about 1,400 rpm in my case, that's about 117Hz HV pulses. Freshly lubricating the bearing can help there but in an ideal world I would substitute the ball bearing from the type used in computer hard drives that have much less friction.

    I also attach the schematic for a solid state version I am building that uses 7 coils, each being fed from a timer and cascade circuit with preset timer periods resulting in HV pulse frequencies ranging from 500 - 3,500Hz but easily changeable to much higher values. Given the need to operate with 12V lead acid batteries, and the potential for high output currents for the inverter, I am running with 36V and using an electromechanical relay for the battery swapper. A buck converter is then required to provide suitable voltages to the main circuit.

    I will update here when I have something more substantial to show.

    Jules
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  3. #103
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    Hi Gregory,

    I went to look at the 10kW household generator at your site but there's just the title and no details? What type of generator is it and what principles is it using?

    Jules

  4. #104
    Hi julesP, I have also just yesterday continued testing with this type of setup, was working on a heater previously.

    I am using only one bifilar coil/core as drive and the other 3 coil/cores as separate generator coils in series.

    Using that generator output to light a 12 volt led bulb off a full wave bridge with large 1.5 farad car audio capacitor to smooth output to the bulb, other wise it flickers a little.

    I'm doing this to place a mechanical load on the device, to then see if the batteries can still maintain voltage and charge over time.

    It is using .42 amps in this configuration, using the same 12 volt tractor batteries, running for an hour, letting rest for awhile, then swapping.

    peace love light
    Last edited by SkyWatcher; 11-11-2018 at 11:02 AM.

  5. #105
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    Solid State Generator Update and some Battery queries (Part 1)

    Hi all,

    I wanted to give an update on my build of the Solid State Version of the generator that was released via Patrick Kelly a couple of months ago. For those who are new to this particular configuration, I refer to it as a PIG (Pulsed Induction Generator) and instead of using a rotor with magnets and a Hall sensor to trigger a set of coils to turn on and then off again, hence producing the HV spikes to charge a battery, a 555 timer chip is used in conjunction with a CD4017 decade counter IC to sequentially fire a series of coils; as many as you care to construct.

    The reason why the coils are fired sequentially rather than all together, and which a single FET could manage very well, is for two reasons. Firstly the smaller windings of each coil, 7 of them in my case, result in a resistance of less than 2 Ohms each. Seven of these in parallel would result in just over 0.25 Ohms with consequently a very high instantaneous current value. Secondly, should one wish to operate the square wave generator at say at 50kHz, each coil is in fact only firing at 1/7th of that frequency which, even with the ferrite cores being used, will be easier for them to manage. As each coil is carefully hand wound and five layers deep on 140mm ferrite cores, I felt that 7 was enough!

    My rotor based system, which I am still working on to glean the most information and experience, typically outputs HV pulses of 1,200V p2p at a frequency of 100-125Hz depending on the rotor rpm which in turn is influenced by the friction in the roller bearing which in turn is influenced the ambient temperature (in my workshop it can get quite cold at times). In contrast the solid state version produces HV pulses of around 500V p2p but at a range of frequencies from 500-5,000Hz (and easily adjustable up to 100kHz and beyond if the coils can respond well) and selected via a set of preset resistance trimmers on the timer board for fine tuning. I am also using a cheaply obtained PWM module that can produce pulses from 1Hz-150kHz and with variable Duty cycle and nicely displayed on a readout. As you can imagine this is depositing a significantly larger amount of energy into the battery.

    Images of the schematic, the build so far, coil construction, the square wave module and output waveforms at various frequencies are at the following link: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/82ys1n2p4...drKTtvBQa?dl=0

    It is interesting to note how the HV pulse waveform changes as the frequency is increased. At 100Hz, my typical rotor based frequency, they are very distinct where as at 2kHz they are merging a bit so that the minimum voltage is increased. At 4kHz they become very distinct again and at 5kHz more blended. I am working on the theory that it is the rising edge that indicates how well the 'vacuum gets smacked' and the space-time warped and also that there are likely to be resonant points in the frequency range where optimum energy flow and battery charging occurs. This aspects will make for some interesting measurements and when the build is complete I plan to use a resistive heating element with an SCR Voltage regulator to provide a variable load for the inverter to see how the generator performs.

    So my build is 80% complete in that I can now produce high frequency pulses and observe the effects on a single 7Ah battery while a separate battery provides for the circuit. The schematic shows that I am feeding the inverter with 36V so that the current demand at a nominal 1kW will be manageable by the small SLA batteries. To that end I am using two banks of 3 batteries and have yet to build the battery swapper that will use an automotive electromechanical relay capable of switching 30-40A. Also I need to sort out the best way to channel the HV pulses to the battery banks and regulate the energy input. Hence the request for guidance that follows.

    Continued in the next post . . . .

    Jules
    Last edited by JulesP; 11-28-2018 at 02:37 AM.

  6. #106
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    Solid State Generator Update and some Battery queries (Part 2)

    In a simple test, and running at only 2kHz, the battery being charged rose from 12.7V to 15.8V in about 8 seconds and then I could hear gassing inside. This was a battery that was new and had not been used before. For a battery that was about 75% charged the voltage rose from 12.6V to 14.3V in a similar time. Clearly the state of the battery and its chemistry regulates the input of energy to some degree (probably due to the varying impedance) and in the former case the circuit current dropped to around 0.2A compared to about 0.4 A with the partly discharged battery.

    I have been searching the forum for information on battery management and charging but have not really found what I am looking for so I am going to put out these questions and see what comes back.

    1. Is it more effective to direct the charging pulses to all three batteries equally in parallel, where the internal impedance will direct the energy to where it is needed most, or in series? My present plan is not to switch the HV pulses but to direct them to both sets of three batteries simultaneously and allow the fact that one set will receive them well (since it is not in discharge mode) and the other set will not as they are in discharge mode while they are powering the circuit and load. The answer to this will determine my design of the final battery switching module.

    2. Is it essential to cycle an SLA battery with a conventional charger before charging them with ZPE as I have read somewhere? Three of my six batteries are as yet untouched by pulse charging while the other three have been subjected to ZPE charging straight 'out of the box'.

    3. Is it possible to damage a battery by feeding it continuously with the HV pulses? Conventional lore proposes a three stage charging process (Bulk, Absorption and Float charging) and to bring the voltage down from 14.4 to 13.4 for the last Float stage and which can be continued indefinitely. It is said that keeping the voltage up at 14.4 or above (15.8V in my case) past the Absorption stage for a long time can damage the battery, especially if continued gassing is maintained and where an SLA battery can't chemically reprocess all of it. Maybe charging with ZPE has a self regulatory property that prevents damage?

    Well there you have it so far. If anyone would like more detailed information on any part of my design or build please just ask. I will be writing it all up in the new year and sharing that document and photos etc but there could be people contemplating this type of generator now. It certainly grabbed my attention and I have thoroughly enjoyed the journey so far, one made a lot easier by having built the rotor based generator first.

    Jules
    Last edited by JulesP; 11-28-2018 at 04:46 AM.

  7. #107

  8. #108
    Hi all, Hi julesp, nice work so far, thanks for sharing.
    As far as the fluffy charge or too little current in the pulses.
    Maybe since your boost converter is coupled in series with the output pulses, it might not be a problem, since that may help give a little more current to the pulses, which it sounds like what is happening, the way it's pushing that voltage up so quickly.

    Which is part of the reason I have detoured a bit with my experiments, I'm testing a Rene / 555 timer / 4 parallel mosfet charging circuit.
    The Rene-emf part, spilts the negatives, so we get a normal, direct current pulse through coil and into charge battery, (I'm using 39 volt input) then the pulse spike back into charge battery.
    Anyway, just thought I'd share what direction I'm in at the moment.
    peace love light

  9. #109
    Senior Member John_Koorn's Avatar
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    Hi Jules, very interesting setup you have there and also very well built.

    My opinions, based on my own experiments are:

    1. It would be more effective to power the generator and the inverter with the primary batteries in series for 36V and charge the other bank with all 3 batteries in parallel (12V). This will eliminate any losses in the buck converter and also lower the impedance of the charge bank. Also, it's well documented and not recommended to rotate the primary and charge batteries. John Bedini has always said that the energy needs to be converted to "regular" energy before powering the system. Whilst you can run the inverter from the ZPE charged batteries, I would not recommend running the generator from them. As such, you could recharge the primary bank conventionally, or run the system from another power source such as a mains powered power supply or even a solar panel.

    2. No, it's not essential however it is recommended that brand new batteries are cycled with a regular "current" charger to fully form the plates before charging with ZPE. I'd suggest that once the batteries are outputting their rated capacity (at the C20 rate) then you can charge them with ZPE.

    3. Depends on the battery and its condition. It's more important to fully charge a battery (no matter what method you use) to ensure the plates are completely de-sulfated than to under-charge them. For your SLA 7Ah batteries I'd recommend not charging them above 14.8V otherwise you will dry out the gel type electrolyte in them which cannot be replaced. (If they're hissing, your losing electrolyte out the vent caps) For more information Google "The Battery Bible". Peter Lindemann also has an excellent e-book called Battery Secrets.

    As for the frequency you're running your setup. Basically, you want to get best bang for your buck. What I mean by that is that you want to charge the coil up to the point where the coil is 95-100% saturated. Any more and you'll be turning it into a heater and any less and you'll be limiting the amount of "ZPE" you can harvest. Then when you discharge the coil, it should discharged to the charge battery voltage. That way your harvesting all of the energy in the coil. From the scope shots you provided I would estimate that optimal frequency is around 200Hz, assuming you're fully saturating the coil.

    The only other suggestion I'd make is that by sequencing your 7 coils, you're also restricting the amount of "ZPE" you can harvest. Although 2 ohms doesn't sound like much, it's way more than the impedance of the batteries. Although it's being a little kinder on the FET it's also impeding the flow of the radiant spike - meaning the voltage of the radiant spike will be lower and you'll be charging with more "conventional" current. I'd suggest paralleling all of the coils which would bring the impedance down to around 0.28571 ohms - much closer to the battery impedance. You may need to also parallel more (matched) FETs if you're over-loading the ones you are using. (Better still, use MJL21194 BJTs - there much more suited to this application)

    Hope this helps...

    John K.

  10. #110
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    Hi SkyWatcher,

    At the moment the Buck Converter is not connected up as I am just running the system on one 12V drive battery and charging another single battery to see what happens. I have yet to organise the 36V feed and hence the Buck converter to supply the coils and timer etc.

    There are so many variations in all this so it's good you are doing your specific thing. If it's clearly written up then all can glean something from it.

    Jules

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