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Thread: ZFM Advanced Explorations

  1. #1
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    ZFM Advanced Explorations

    Hello to All,

    The ZFM, as conceived by the late John Bedini and subsequently built by Peter Lindemann, is a very intriguing motor as demonstrated in the ZFM Replication thread. That thread delineates the workings of this motor and provides the basic conceptual and design information necessary for replication. The ZFM Conference Presentation video is also helpful in fleshing out certain details.

    The key elements of the ZFM as executed by Lindemann and demonstrated at the 2016 and 2017 Conferences are twin opposing coils, each of about 90 degree arc with an internal four pole iron rotor with four Neo magnets in a NSNS configuration. The motor is energized and controlled by the Bedini Cole Bipolar switch via a timing rotor and reed switches.

    There are a number of possible design arrangements, however this thread will use the PL(Lindemann)ZFM configuration for the explorations since one replicated ZFM unit is at hand. This motor, the YZFM, has quite a few hours of operation under its belt and is easily modified which suits the purpose of this thread.

    The explorations will use the same timing parameters for the YZFM that were demonstrated at the last conference. The parameters are as follows: 1) Firing Angle (FA) of 60-65 degrees (Degrees of Arc that coil is energized), 2) Advance (Adv) of ~45 degrees (Degrees of Arc where firing is initiated as measured from the center point between the coils) and 3) an operating voltage of 36v DC. This is a less aggressive tuning for this machine, but it still demonstrates very good performance and is a stable configuration for the YZFM and the purposes of this thread.

    The first step taken was to modify the motor by removing all the stainless steel fasteners (Cap screws) and retaining straps, and replacing with nylon bolts and using EPDM bungee cords for motor positioning and retention. The pillow block bearings were remounted further away from the motor body as suggested by others. The major modification involved replacing the earlier 3/4"Dx3/8"T Neo's with 1"Dx3/8"T Neo's. The timing rotor Neo's were reconfigured to a NS arrangement from the initial NN arrangement. These several simple modifications stabilized the performance of the motor and produced a consistent behavior that yields well over 10,000 RPM at 0.62Amp and 36v.

    YZFM Mod 11.11.17.JPG

    The next post will explore varying the axial position of the Rotor Neo's with respect to the centerline of the coils. As always, questions relevant to the thread will be answered as time permits.

    Yaro
    Last edited by Yaro1776; 11-11-2017 at 08:02 AM. Reason: Insert Modified YZFM image

  2. #2
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    Rotor and Coil Positioning

    The first experiment with the modified YZFM was to move the motor body axially in both directions from the centerline of the Neo/coil interface. The purpose here is to observe the performance impact as the 1"D Neo's position is moved from one edge to the other of the 1.5" coil width. The data is as follows for 36v:

    Left Edge 10,260 RPM @0.62A; 22.3 watts

    Centered 10,366 RPM @0.62A; 22.3 watts

    Right Edge 10,380 RPM @0.63A; 22.7 watts

    The results in the above are obvious - moving the Neo/rotor axially within the boundaries of the coil width has no observable impact on the performance results. The limits can be pushed further when the motor mounting board is modified at a later date - intent here is to push the outer edge of the rotor Neo beyond the edge of the coil. As a note of interest, one end was capable of being pushed about an 1/8" beyond the edge of the coil without any observable impact on performance. A very excellent and informative experiment that demonstrates the interaction/influence of the induced magnetic fields!

    The amperage data is now taken from the computer screen and the TET amperage sensor is located on the negative wire to the batteries. The RPM's are currently read with a handheld laser tachometer. At a later date an optical RPM instrument will be installed so that the real time values of both RPM and Amps can be viewed graphically.

    As a performance note the edge readings experience a definite surge in amps around 9,600 RPM with a rapid corresponding increase in RPM. The amp readings then settle down to about the same value before the surge. There are other speed points with a minor surge/kick. The centered Neo position is a bit smoother

    At a later date this will be documented via a short YouTube video. No time to do all the fancy editing required as of now and will wait until the torque assembly is completed.

    The torque testing assembly is still in process of being finalized and then assembled. Lots to do with so little time - but still a great adventure.

    Yaro
    Last edited by Yaro1776; 11-22-2017 at 01:26 PM. Reason: Add power for claeification

  3. #3
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    To Torque or not to Torque

    Hello all,

    The torque testing of the ZFM is a very essential component in determining the performance of this motor. In keeping with the low budget nature approach, the testing process was simplified to its most essential, albeit, primitive nature.

    Useful references to the simplified approach can be found at the following: http://www.energyscienceforum.com/sh...indemann+Video and at page 30 in http://books.google.com/books?id=Eq8...page&q&f=false

    This should get you started on the right path. So onto the data from the prior post's YZFM configuration. Now we did run the tests again and the following are the simplified/best results for the left, center and right coil positions, noted are the output watts.

    Left edge 8,540 RPM @ 0.84A with 8.34 watts
    Center 8,560 RPM @ 0.84A with 8.36 watts
    Right edge 8,580 RPM @ 0.83A with 8.38 watts

    The load on the shaft was 150 gr in all the above. All this yields a nominal efficiency of about 28%. Not very impressive. However, the purpose of this test was to verify that the magnetic fields are very wide. This result strongly suggests that the Neo length could be extended, at least, to the width of the coil and may improve the performance of this ZFM. James McD. has done this modification and states that it definitely kicks the torque up a notch or two. That will be the next mission - longer rotor and longer/thicker Neo's. Early days yet.

    The Torque testing apparatus (pic below) was built from easily obtainable parts. The vertical support - electrical conduit (0.600"ID) 2 ft. length, (1) Horizontal lever arm - about 3 ft. of 1"x3/4" hardwood or equivalent, (1) 3/8" expandable anchor wedge, 2"Lx3/4" bolt, (1) 4-1/2" steel angle bracket, (2) very small hooks, (2) O'Haus 1000 gram Spring Scales (Davis) and a (1) 1/4-20x 2 1/2"L bolt and nut.One soft leather belt with a rough side. Cut to length desired and punch holes, abrade the area of shaft/pulley contact. Hang weights on lever arm - water bottle works fine.

    Rock.jpg

    Assemble by driving wedge into the conduit flush. Drill a 3/8" hole in the center of the angle bracket. Drill 1/4" hole in conduit about 20'-22" from wedge end. Bolt bracket into wedge and assemble torque apparatus. Clamp to table edge. Go play!

    Happy Thanksgiving,
    Yaro

  4. #4
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    ZFM with 1-1/2"Lx1"Wx1/2"T Neo's

    Hello all,

    The next step with the YZFM was to machine an 1-1/2" long Aluminum rotor to be outfitted with a 3/8" thick Neo in keeping with the experimental progression. Not to be, the search for this thickness with a 1-1/2"Lx1"W was unsuccessful and a 1/2"T Neo was substituted. The prior testing and anecdotal testing strongly suggested this would improve the torque of the ZFM.

    The big Neo's are a handful and require focused attention for proper assembly. For ease of assembly the Aluminum rotor had a 1/2"Dia steel pin inserted through the center. The Loctite 332 structural adhesive was used for attaching the Neo's to the Al rotor. The first Neo was simple to position, however the opposing Neo was more challenging - hence the steel pin and this helped. After attaching the first set of Neo's the assembly was clamped is a wooden vice. The next two Neo's were installed very carefully using wooden shims to slide into position. Another wooden clamp was used on these Neo's and the assembly allowed to sit for about an hour before curing - temp in my outside work area was a balmy 29F.

    1118171245_HDR-1.jpg

    The rotor assembly was placed into a Pyrex bowl and covered, then wrapped with a towel for insulation. This was set on the Barbeque grill and heated so that the internal temperature was 130F-140F and then cured for about 3 hours. Bear in mind that the maximum recommended temperature for the Neo's is between 170F-180F. Exposure to higher temperatures will degrade the magnetic capability of the Neo. The final step was to wrap the rotor with three layers of fiberglass shipping tape after mounting and positioning on the shaft.

    The motor was proofed progressively at higher speeds and voltages (12v, 24v, 36v and 48v). Immediately obvious that the timing and dwell needed to be modified with the new rotor. The FA (firing angle) was reduced to 50-55 degrees and this helped immensely. The advance adjustment has become much more sensitive over the prior rotor.

    Anyway, the motor definitely has more torque and will still achieve the same speeds as the prior assembly at 36v, albeit with a greater amperage draw. The bottom end torque is impressive, particularly at 48v.

    So for no load 36v; 10,186 RPM at 1.16A, nearly double the prior rotor. Okay let us look at an example of the developed power, but at a more working and useful RPM.
    Small rotor 5,099 RPM at 1.16A; output 9.98 watts with a 300gr load - efficiency 23.84%
    Large rotor 5,111 RPM at 1.60A; output 14.64 watts with a 440gr load - efficiency 25.41%

    The above results demonstrate that the modification of the rotor/Neo length to equal the coil width has great merit. The 48v testing has shown the same type of result. The larger rotor has a very obvious quirk at higher speeds for both of the higher voltages. At about 85-90% of max RPM there is a sudden major acceleration accompanied by about a 10% increase in amperage draw. First time is a bit unsettling, particularly at 48v, when the RPM jumped to 12,700 RPM.

    The tuning process is not quite complete. There is still the sense that the motor is fighting itself.

    Happy Cyber Monday,
    Yaro
    Last edited by Yaro1776; 11-25-2017 at 02:46 PM. Reason: Syntax

  5. #5
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    Upbeat ZFM for Cyber Monday

    Hello to All in the Provinces,

    So after the last series of experiments and the so-so results the experimental test plan was modified. Initially speed was the focus and this obviously was not a winner for COP. The Big Al rotor needed some encouragement, so the timing advance and firing angle approach were modified in the quest for more efficiency.

    From prior experience the firing angle (FA) was reduced (not measured as yet) and the advance retarded progressively. This resulted in an increase in overall efficiency (COP) from around 25% to 40%. Mega gain!

    This motor does become gutsy as the timing is modified, though still maintaining the 40% efficiency.

    For 36v: 4,572 RPM @1.07A with a 515gr load; output 15.73 watts, overall efficiency 40%. Not too shabby for a home built motor.

    Next was a dry start under a 540 gram load. Can the ZFM do this? No problem - this dry start yielded the same efficiency. The motor produced 15.79 watts of power at 4493 RPM @ 1.11A.

    So what are the next steps in this experimentation process? Stay tuned, for sure a video is in the making...

    Happy Cyber Monday,
    Yaro

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