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Thread: ZFM Advanced Explorations

  1. #41
    Senior Member John_Koorn's Avatar
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    Still reading with interest Yaro

    John K.

  2. #42
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    Two Pole Rotor ZFM Experiments VI

    November ended with a body slam of 16+ inches of damp snow that knocked out power and comm for 72 hours - this effectively delayed the following post until now.

    The change to the Timing Rotor Neo configuration to NN was a great improvement in overall performance yielding the following data:

    Coil Serial Mode: 35.86v 8294 RPM at 1.10A

    pic_31_1.jpg

    Coil Parallel Mode: 24.5v 8571 RPM at 2.90A

    pic_31_10.jpg

    Inspection of the above O-scope pics demonstrates the changes in the coil firing, for both modes, to a more regular pattern. Later, the Reed switches were further tweaked manually for a better equality of the dead time between firings.

    This should finish out this round of 2 Pole ZFM configuration experiments and the results were certainly worth the effort as follows:
    1) It was demonstrated that the opposing 90 degree empty segments of arc without a coil do not appear to negatively impact performance. The unusual characteristic of the empty arc segment yielding a greater RPM than the Coil segment when one leg of the firing circuit is disabled. This aspect was repeatable on multiple occasions.

    2) The modification to the Neo configuration, from a N-S opposing pattern to a N-N opposing pattern, demonstrated that the magnetic field interplay between the ZFM Motor and Timing Rotor are very important for maximum performance. It appears that the Motor Rotor Neo's play an important part in the 2 Pole arrangement and do influence the Reed switches and timing.

    3) The 2 Pole ZFM will produce enough torque to drive a modest load, albeit not very efficiently.

    Next on the agenda is to modify the existing Motor Rotor to a 4 Pole configuration - the upcoming Holidays will undoubtedly delay this a bit.

    Happy Holidays...
    Yaro

    "The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you." -Neil Degrasse Tyson

  3. #43
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    4 Pole ZFM with Big AL2 rotor

    Hello to all,

    Now that the 2018 holidays gave everything that you desired, it is time to move on to the continuing ZFM saga. This closing chapter will use the previous 2 Pole rotor and add two more opposing Neo's (1"wx1"l x 1/2"t) creating the standard 4 Pole rotor configuration. However, this rotor is larger dimensionally and with the above Neo's the edges clear the coil by about 1/16". Very tight! A difference of nearly 1/8".

    In essence, this is about as tight a Neo to Coil gap as is practical. Ideally a curved arc segment Neo would be the best and offer a tighter gap, but all that is readily available are the rectangular Neo's. It is useful to bear in mind that the greatest magnetic field on a rectangular Neo is the center of the pole face. The performance of this configuration will be compared to prior test data to observe if any gains are realized through the gap reduction.

    Since this is, perhaps, the final effort with the 4 Pole configuration, particular attention was paid to minimizing the bearing friction and perfecting the alignment. The initial proofing runs yielded 8800 RPM at 1.55A and 24.65V (LAB power) in Coil parallel mode. The transistors remained at skin temperature.

    Another adder to this configuration will be a BEMF recovery circuit as described by R Cole's circuit schematic. It will be interesting to experiment with the tighter gap and the BEMF circuit. See below.
    Bedini Cole Bipolar Switch.jpg

    Enough for now and Happy New Year,
    Yaro

    "The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you." -Neil Degrasse Tyson

  4. #44
    Hi Yaro,

    Quote Originally Posted by Yaro1776 View Post
    Hello to all,

    Now that the 2018 holidays gave everything that you desired, it is time to move on to the continuing ZFM saga. This closing chapter will use the previous 2 Pole rotor and add two more opposing Neo's (1"wx1"l x 1/2"t) creating the standard 4 Pole rotor configuration. However, this rotor is larger dimensionally and with the above Neo's the edges clear the coil by about 1/16". Very tight! A difference of nearly 1/8".

    In essence, this is about as tight a Neo to Coil gap as is practical. Ideally a curved arc segment Neo would be the best and offer a tighter gap, but all that is readily available are the rectangular Neo's. It is useful to bear in mind that the greatest magnetic field on a rectangular Neo is the center of the pole face. The performance of this configuration will be compared to prior test data to observe if any gains are realized through the gap reduction.

    Since this is, perhaps, the final effort with the 4 Pole configuration, particular attention was paid to minimizing the bearing friction and perfecting the alignment. The initial proofing runs yielded 8800 RPM at 1.55A and 24.65V (LAB power) in Coil parallel mode. The transistors remained at skin temperature.

    Another adder to this configuration will be a BEMF recovery circuit as described by R Cole's circuit schematic. It will be interesting to experiment with the tighter gap and the BEMF circuit. See below.
    Bedini Cole Bipolar Switch.jpg

    Enough for now and Happy New Year,
    This sounds very interesting. I'm anxious to see the results.

    By the way, I found some curved magnets you might be able to use on the magnet4less web site. Here's the link. http://www.magnet4less.com/product_i...oducts_id=1199
    Gary Hammond,

  5. #45
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    4 Pole ZFM with Big AL2 rotorII

    Hello to Everyone in Legoland,

    For this set of experiments the 4 Pole Rotor in the ZFM is outfitted with four 1"Lx1"Wx1/2"T N52 Neos arranged in a NSNS configuration identical to prior configurations with the exception of the coil to Neo edge gap/clearance. The clearance was reduced to the practical limit of less then 1/16" or 2 mm. The prior rotors had between 0.160" to 0.300" clearance.

    The intention was to see if the ZFM torque curve improved over prior rotor arrangements; in essence, the motor did display a stouter Torque curve in both Series and Parallel mode. The maximum RPM was diminished, however the torque curve was expanded over a wider usable range. The maximum torque value was similar to prior tests, but the overall efficiency of the motor was diminished from the last tests with the 2"Lx1/2"Wx1/2"T rotor.

    The Firing advance setting was restrained for best work performance and not speed. The advance was set a bit beyond than the lowest amperage range read point. This resulted in lower overall speed, but at lower amps. Particularly useful for the parallel mode of operation to minimize transistor overheating at high loadings.

    BigAL2 Rotor:
    Parallel Mode
    23.80v, 8340 RPM at 1.40A and 000 gr Load, 34.75w with 0% eff
    24.69v, 4730 RPM at 2.86A and 510 gr Load, 70.64w with 22% eff
    The efficiency results ranged up to 28%. Transistor heating limited maximum loading

    Series Mode
    40.19v, 7000 RPM at 0.70A and 000 gr Load, 28.10w with 0% eff
    40.90v, 4852 RPM at 1.41A and 530 gr Load, 58.10w with 29% eff
    The efficiency results ranged up to 29%. Transistor heating was not an issue.

    The above performance results are lower than the 2"Lx1/2"Wx1/2"T rotor even though the overall magnetic pull force is identical. The 1.5"Lx1"x1/2" (67.5 lbs pull strength) Neo rotor pulled a 42% eff at similar loads.

    An observation to note is that the 4 Pole efficiency is about twice that of the 2 Pole when the firing rate is 4 times a revolution.

    All the above demonstrates that the magnetic pull force exerted by the Neo has a positive impact on performance. The reduction in clearance does improve the basic tractability of the motor. The length of the Neo also comes into play. The coil clearance is another important factor. Endless possibilities, but the path is clear.

    The basic ZFM configuration is just an introduction. It is not optimized, but it does engage the experimenter whose purpose is gaining knowledge and understanding of the arcane world of magnetic field interaction.

    The next step is to integrate the R. Cole BEMF recovery circuit into the ZFM equation. Will it improve performance? Stay tuned...
    Last edited by Yaro1776; 01-23-2019 at 05:38 AM. Reason: 2 and 4 Pole Efficiency
    Yaro

    "The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you." -Neil Degrasse Tyson

  6. #46
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    ZFM with R Cole's CEMF Circuit

    Hola to all,

    During Ron Cole's association with John Bedini a number of very interesting motors and control circuits were produced. This collaboration yielded the BiPolar Switching circuit (depicted in prior post) and other enhancements. One of the enhancements was the adder circuit to collect the "Counter EMF" as described by Cole. A better description may be that the terms are not that well defined. It appears, at least to this writer, that the circuit may just be collecting the extra potential created by the inductive collapse upon the removal of power from the coil circuit before the polarity reversal - correct me if I am wrong here. So, it may not be a true BEMF recycling circuit, but an inductive spike collection method. The semantics here can be rehashed by others and corrected as need be. Of more consequence is the impact on motor performance.

    R Cole CEMF.jpg 2018 BEMF.jpg

    The additional circuit is essentially a diode bridge, whose sole purpose is to collect this collapse of potential during coil power off and to transform it into a usable form that can be injected back into the ZFM's coil power circuit. All in all, an interesting conjecture. Question is whether this does indeed work and, more importantly, can it be used to jack up the performance of the ZFM??

    As an example preliminary data from the 4 pole configuration is used:
    Series mode w/o Cole circuit
    36.26v, 6733 RPM at 0.81A, 000 gr Load with input 29.37w - 00.0% eff
    36.83v, 4617 RPM at 1.54A, 540 gr Load with input 56.72w - 28.8% eff
    Series mode w/ Cole circuit
    36.23v, 7180 RPM at 0.79A, 000 gr Load with input 28.62w - 00.0% eff
    36.89v, 4690 RPM at 1.50A, 550 gr Load with input 55.34w - 30.3% eff

    In general from multiple readings in Series mode the added Cole circuit yielded about a 10% improvement.

    Parallel mode w/o Cole circuit
    23.80v, 8340 RPM at 1.46A, 000 gr Load with Input 34.75w - 00.0% eff
    24.29v, 4610 RPM at 2.80A, 550 gr Load with input 67.29w - 24.5% eff

    Parallel mode w/ Cole circuit
    24.39v, 8443 RPM at 1.53A, 000 gr Load with input 37.32w - 00.0% eff
    24.29v, 4950 RPM at 2.69A, 550 gr Load with input 65.34w - 27.1% eff

    In general from multiple readings in Parallel mode the added Cole circuit yielded about a 10% improvement.

    Overall the above experiments were not pushed for more performance and RPM. The last set of experiments were incomplete when a shorted wire from the Cole circuit breadboard fried one set of transistors. This will be repaired and the experiments run again in the future.

    It is of interest that in Parallel mode the 2 wire output from the Cole circuit was 2 to 4 volts higher than the combined input voltage from the Bipolar switch - for a 24.5 V power supply voltage, the total coil voltage potential would equal 49.0 volts, but the Cole circuit output would read 52 volts. This split output was fed into the transistors.

    BTW the function of the 4uf capacitor in the circuit is to smooth out the voltage speed bumps, I believe that a higher value would provide a bit more smoothing. Not sure what the function of the balance resistor is at this time.

    In the next post, as time permits, I intend to more fully describe the performance of the added Cole circuit through a comparison of scope shots with and without the circuit.

    Thanks for your attention...
    Ciao,
    Last edited by Yaro1776; 01-24-2019 at 05:37 AM. Reason: data value correction
    Yaro

    "The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you." -Neil Degrasse Tyson

  7. #47
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    ZFM with R Cole's CEMF Circuit2

    Greetings to all,

    The last post presented preliminary data and performance of the ZFM utilizing the R Cole CEMF circuit. Inserted below are four pics that depict the oscope graphs for Voltage (yellow trace) and Amperage (blue trace) under a no load condition. The timing here is ~55 degrees advance from the coil end/center of the rotor Neo interface. The ZFM is being powered by 2 LAB's in series for both consecutive test configurations. These tests are in Coil Parallel mode.

    The first pic is of the Parallel run without the CEMF circuit at 24 volts at 8800 RPM and 1.70A, while the second pic depicts Gen mode when the power is removed from the ZFM circuit. The Gen mode trace is in actuality the motor's BEMF and the maximum voltage is about 20v. The BEMF trace is a relatively regular wave pattern.

    You will note in the first pic that the inductive spikes upon removal of power hit nearly 70 volts.

    pic_46_4.jpg

    pic_46_5.jpg

    The third pic displays the Parallel run w/ the Cole circuit at 24 volts at 8800 RPM and 1.67A, while the fourth pic presents the BEMF graph. When the Cole CEMF circuit is activated the major voltage spikes during operation are reduced to a maximum of about 55 volts. The remainder of the graph appears very similar to the w/o CEMF pic. Now the last pic of the BEMF trace is radically different and demonstrates the impact of the rectifier bridge and the 4uF capacitor. Certainly this can be further smoothed by raising the value of the capacitor.

    pic_46_2.jpg

    pic_46_3.jpg

    In conclusion the very tight gap between the rotor and coil along with the stronger Neo's does markedly improve the torque characteristics of the ZFM. The most recent tests in series mode clearly show that the ideal advance for the motor ranges around 45 to 50 degrees. A test run on Feb 7 at 24 volts showed the torque curve to be stable from a no load speed of 4500 RPM at 0.58A down to 2100 RPM at 1.57A with a 615 gram load. Nominal efficiency output/input of 26% without the CEMF circuit (New Bipolar Switch board is on its way).

    Increasing the voltage to 36v will improve the torque and efficiency to 30%. It has been demonstrated that efficiencies of over 40% can be achieved with various timing, rotor and Neo configurations for the Twin coil 4 Neo rotor ZFM. The total impact of the Cole CEMF circuit, from the small test sample, appears to add about a 10% performance improvement.

    So overall the 4 pole ZFM experiments are relatively complete. There may be additional posts to demonstrate relevant results. For now the next steps are to improve the timing method and design the next ZFM configuration.

    Thank you for your attention...
    Last edited by Yaro1776; 02-09-2019 at 12:38 PM. Reason: Mode clarification
    Yaro

    "The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you." -Neil Degrasse Tyson

  8. #48
    Networking Architect Aaron Murakami's Avatar
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    Hi Yaro,

    Thanks for the continuing updates on your experiments!

    Do you have any plans to experiment with this kind of ZFM with an iron core?
    Aaron Murakami





    You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete. ― Richard Buckminster Fuller

  9. #49
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    Hey Aaron,

    Appreciate your comment and positive suggestion. I will be reviewing the next potential modifications to this existing design configuration and the iron core is one of them. The last set of experiments related to an iron core were done over a year ago by placing thin very low carbon steel strips on the outside arc of the two coils. This experiment clearly demonstrated that the steel strips will heat up very rapidly from the oscillating magnetic fields - great induction heater. Granted this may not be the case for a coil with an internal iron core at the lower RPM's.

    There still remains a lot of important data that needs to be analyzed before jumping forward to the next build/modification. Time will tell!
    Yaro

    "The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you." -Neil Degrasse Tyson

  10. #50
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    As a followup to the last post the following links are provided as historical perspective and progression of the ZFM:

    ZFM Demo video by John Bedini of P Lindemann's motor
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4TICXxP1jI4

    3D ZFM model video by John Bedini
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XQzc...ature=youtu.be

    ZFM Proto video by John Bedini using iron core
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3kpDMMcNQxc

    In essence the YZFM does embody JB's concept, though imperfectly. The last iteration, contained within the latest posts, demonstrates the motor running at high speed while using a firing advance such that the coil is energized at its mid point. All is good here.

    There still remain many questions with respect to the operating principles of the Zero Force Motor and the influence of Bemf. More on this, perhaps, at a later date.

    Thanks to Forum member Gyula for assembling the above video info documented in the early posts of the Johm Bedini's Magnetic Model Thread.

    Have a great Washington's Birthday and thanks for your attention.
    Yaro

    "The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you." -Neil Degrasse Tyson

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