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Thread: ZFM Advanced Explorations

  1. #31
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    ZFM Biflar Coils and the Parallel Quandary II

    Appreciate the positive comment John,

    Anyway, decided to flesh this coil question out by running an additional experiment with both coils now in parallel - no Bifilar for the 4 strands. The individual coil resistance is 3 ohms with the parallel configuration yielding 1.7 ohms. This experiment was run at 24v with the same load values as the previous experiment for a valid comparison.

    Surprisingly there was no real difference in the values of the results. It was as if the prior experiment was run again. Check out the data and schematic below.

    ZFM Parallel Coil Config.pdf
    ZFM Parallel Coil Torque.pdf

    Both parallel configurations do produce very different operational characteristics versus the series coil configuration. There may be individual differences in the two parallel configurations that may be noted with some further load testing. For the time being this will be put aside for future reference. As a note the parallel mode is a bit sensitive to voltage, however the usable voltage range is between 20v and 36v for this particular rotor/Neo arrangement. Higher voltages do not appear to be that useful at this time.
    Yaro

    "The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you." -Neil Degrasse Tyson

  2. #32
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    Two Pole ZFM

    Hello to All,

    The prior post Parallel experiments, with the 2.0Lx0.5Tx0.5W Neo, were interrupted by a skin failure of the Neo magnet at around 12,000 RPM. Just finishing the test program, when the one Neo separated from the iron core. Shipping tape wrap prevented any serious damage, but the rotor is toast. Unfortunately, I did not complete the series torque test for a truly valid comparison. However, data from and performance of similar rotor's in series is very close at the lower voltages and efficiencies. At least it is useful.

    Moving on, the next experiment is with a two pole rotor ZFM (North Face Out).

    Purpose of this exercise is to evaluate a two pole (North out) rotor configuration under various firing configurations and to establish performance baselines for the various modes of operation. Series, Bifilar and Parallel. This rotor configuration squeezes the Neo/coil gap to under 0.050" at the Neo edges and coil ends - very tight! Will this tighter gap improve performance?

    Since the rotor is two pole, it is intuitive to fire the coils every 180 degrees. However the initial experiment in series mode will fire the coils' every 90 degrees as a start, since both opposing coils span span 90 degrees each - what happens when the coils are fired in the remaining dead zone between the coils?

    Fortunately, the next round of experiments will be bolstered by the new o-scope for further clarification. May take a bit to get adjusted to the new electronics. See what happens...

    Yaro
    Yaro

    "The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you." -Neil Degrasse Tyson

  3. #33
    Senior Member John_Koorn's Avatar
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    Hi Yaro, it's unfortunate that the rotor is toast. I sincerely hope no one was injured! Rotors can be rebuilt - eyes on the other hand, cannot.

    John K.

  4. #34
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    Thanks for the interest John,

    Quote Originally Posted by John_Koorn View Post
    Hi Yaro, it's unfortunate that the rotor is toast. I sincerely hope no one was injured! Rotors can be rebuilt - eyes on the other hand, cannot.

    John K.
    I definitely was pushing the envelope with that particular test at maximum advance and 36v in parallel coil mode. Bear in mind that in parallel mode the current/voltage affect to the coils is similar to 72v in series mode. Normally in series mode the max voltage threshold is 48v for obvious safety reasons. One can only speculate as to the forces generated at that high a voltage hammering the rotor Neo's 800 times per second at 12,000 RPM.

    A walk on the wild side,
    Yaro
    Last edited by Yaro1776; 09-15-2018 at 04:41 AM. Reason: clarification
    Yaro

    "The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you." -Neil Degrasse Tyson

  5. #35
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    Two Pole Rotor ZFM Experiments

    November Greetings to All,

    Back in the experiment mode after a busy Summer and Fall hiatus. Definitely a good opportunity to clear the head and start afresh with the next ZFM episode.

    The new Oscope has been a great addition to the test instrumentation and has yielded satisfactory results to date, in particular when examining the firing characteristics of the ZFM in the following experiments.

    The initial thrust of the 2 pole experiment was to investigate the behavior and operational characteristics of the standard two 90 degree opposing coil ZFM in two modes of operation with a series Coil configurattion. Normally a coil is energized when the Rotor's Neo magnets are within the coil, however in this instance the coils are energized both within the coils and external to them. The coils are energized 4 times a revolution. A second variant of 2 energizings per revolution was also run. Please note that this configuration has a very tight gap of ~0.040" between the rotor edge and coil.

    The first pic demonstrates the 4x mode at 45.98v at 0..92A ad 8491 RPM. The higher voltage was used to demonstrate the voltage (yellow line) and amperage (blue line) values in more detail.
    pic_15_3.jpg

    Pic 2 demonstrates the generated voltage created by the ZFM when the power is off to the coils and freewheeling.
    pic_15_4.jpg

    Pic 3 demonstrates one leg of the firing circuit only; at 48.48v at 0.72A and 5899 RPM. The rotor is within the coil when energized. Coils are energized 2x per revolution.
    pic_15_7.jpg

    Pic 4 demonstrates the other leg of the firing circuit only; at 47.94v at 0.74A and 6386 RPM. The rotor is in the 90 degree empty space between the coils. Coils are energized 2x per revolution.
    pic_15_8.jpg

    So the above demonstrates that the coil end points are the true drivers of the ZFM in the present configuration. It is interesting to note that the RPM is higher during the empty space firing. This was observed several times under several different voltages, firing angles and advances.

    Feel free to comment...
    Last edited by Yaro1776; 11-14-2018 at 12:48 PM. Reason: Add Series Coil config clarification
    Yaro

    "The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you." -Neil Degrasse Tyson

  6. #36
    Senior Member Yaro1776's Avatar
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    Two Pole Rotor ZFM Experiments II

    The prior post depicts the behavior of the Two Pole Series configuration along with some general performance data.

    BTW - the value for the amps (blue line) is calculated by taking the millivolt differential from a base of 2.5V (positive or negative value) and multiplying by factor of 9.6. Hence, a 500 mV differential value is equivalent to 4.8A.

    Pic 1 demonstrates the coil firing pattern and one will note the irregularity of the firing timing. The coils are fired by reed switches every 90 degrees and actuated by a Timing Rotor with accurately spaced 1/4" Neo's 180 degrees apart. Previous experience has demonstrated that this method works well, however with the Two Pole arrangement this is not the case since it is obvious from the Oscope Pic that the firing is irregular or of varying frequency.

    To eliminate this, the timing assembly was modified using 3 different Timing Rotors and 2 different Reed mounts. The results demonstrate that the firing frequency and basic voltage/amp graphs' shapes were unaltered by these changes. Same same!

    Note the voltage rise time during firing - nearly instantaneous for the air coil.

    Pic 2 depicts the generator mode behavior as the Rotor Neo's pass through the coil segment creating a positive voltage and a negative voltage through the 90 degree empty space segment without any current. This graph is very regular with respect to timing as the Neo's travel by the coils.

    Pics 3 and 4 depict operation with one of the two legs of the timing circuit disabled. Of major interest is the detailed look at the BEMF and ringing behavior of the voltage. Perhaps it is time to add a diode bridge to the BiPolar switch board when running with the LABS and harvest these voltage spikes- not recommended for the 120v Power Supply.

    Okay, so now how does the Parallel Coil mode look when running - here are the Oscope Pics:

    Pic 1 24.0v at 1.92A and 7133RPM. The operational voltage is approximately one half of the series voltage and the amperage is approximately twice the series amps. You will note that the Pics for this mode are very similar to the prior post's Series configuration. The transistors heat up rapidly and only allow a short period of operation. Very hesitant to do a torque test due this rapid heating.
    2 Pole Par Coil AL TR5 PS.jpg

    Pic 2 Running at 24v with one leg disabled - motor slowed way down to under 1000 RPM - very rapid heating of the firing transistors with amperage maxed out at nearly 5 A. Used 24v LAB for this run. Regular Power Supply a bit flakey here.
    2PPar_one_leg.jpg

    An interesting side note - the last run was completed with a LAB and the initial start voltage was 24.83v. Multiple runs were done to warm the ZFM up in Parallel mode. After the first set of tests the LAB increased its resting voltage (rest 30 minutes) to 25.20v. Another set of runs was completed with 24.61v measured while in operation - after 60 minutes the resting LAB voltage was at 25.25v. Not definitive, but food for thought!

    The next and last post of the Two Pole experiments will present the results of the Series Coil Torque tests and perhaps a video of the Series and Parallel Coils in operation.

    Happy Deer hunting season...
    Last edited by Yaro1776; Yesterday at 11:26 AM. Reason: Missing Pic Links; Correct rest voltage value
    Yaro

    "The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you." -Neil Degrasse Tyson

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