Back-Popping a Two-Current Lead-Acid Battery
Tom Bearden, The year is 1984
WARNING: THE FOLLOWING EXPERIMENTS ARE HAZARDOUS. DO NOT ATTEMPT THESE EXPERIMENTS UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES UNLESS YOU ARE AN EXPERIENCED ELECTRICAL RESEARCHER, EXPERIENCED IN PERFORMING EXPERIMENTS WITH LEAD-ACID BATTERIES AND PULSE CHARGE AND DISCHARGE OF SAME, AND UNLESS YOU ALSO USE ALL SAFETY PRECAUTIONS SUCH AS GOGGLES AND PROTECTIVE GLOVES, SLEEVES, AND APRON. YOU MUST NOT HAVE OTHER INFLAMMABLE LIQUIDS OR OTHER SUBSTANCES PRESENT WHICH COULD BE IGNITED AND BURN OR EXPLODE. SURGED LEAD-ACID BATTERIES PRODUCE HYDROGEN GAS, WHICH CAN EASILY EXPLODE SINCE SPARKING ALSO CAN OCCUR. THE ACID FROM SUCH AN EXPLOSION CAN EASILY BLIND YOU IF IT GETS IN YOUR EYES, AND IT CAN BURN YOUR SKIN. IN ADDITION, LEAD AND LEAD COMPOUNDS ARE POISONS, AND ARE TO BE HANDLED ONLY BY EXPERIENCED RESEARCHERS. THESE EXPERIMENTS ARE NOT FOR AMATEURS UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCE, BUT ONLY FOR EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONALS WITH PROPER KNOWLEDGE AND TRAINING, AND USING PROPER PRECAUTIONS. NEITHER THE AUTHOR NOR THE PUBLISHER IS REPONSIBLE OR LIABLE FOR ANY ACCIDENTS OR DAMAGE YOU MAY ENCOUNTER, AND ALL EXPERIMENTATION WITH THESE DEVICES AND PROCEDURES IS AT YOUR OWN ASSUMED PERSONAL RISK. More than one inventor has discovered or rediscovered a "magic" thing about lead-acid storage batteries powering circuits, usually without understanding precisely what it is that he has really discovered. The chemical and electrical actions going on in a lead-acid cell are quite complex, and involve interactions in both the positive plate, negative plate, and in the electrolyte itself. The usual chemical interactions primarily specify the overall changes of the plate materials from one form to the other (i. e. , for charge and for discharge conditions). However, there are many other ions (including both H+ which are free protons, and free electrons) involved in the reactions.
Particularly significant is the double surface and overpotential effects. We state without further elaboration that the proper use of the overpotentials in these double surfaces can produce current that moves against the voltage. In other words, there are processes available in the battery that allow -- under very precise conditions -- parts of the battery to perform as negative resistors. When that action occurs, the very notion of "charge and discharge" is reversed.
Further, the multiple currents and many nonlinear mechanisms involved, allow various currents to move in opposite directions; some with the voltage and some against the voltage. Again, we leave further analysis along that line to the experts, only appealing to them that time-reversal effects must also be considered.
In other words, in addition to the "external charges" of molecules and atoms that they normally consider, there are also ongoing a huge variety of nuclear currents and charging that presently do not appear in any book on batteries, at least any I know of.
There are at least three major currents in such a battery: (1) the ion current in the electrolyte, (2) the electron current in the conductors (electrode materials, terminal connectors, etc), and (3) charge transfer reactions at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces. For our purposes we shall consider primarily only the ion current and the electron current, and we consider only lead-acid batteries. For an introduction to various kinds of batteries, we refer the interested reader to a fine little text by Vincent, and to other similar texts on modern batteries. For deep understanding of the electrochemistry, we refer the reader to the full series of 13 volumes by Bockris and Conway.
We shall also rather ignore the double layer effects, which are in fact quite important because they are responsible for the producing overpotentials, phase shifting of currents, etc. The present "analysis" can be materially deepened by taking into account the double surface layers, their redistributions of charge, the internal resistances of the cell to the various currents, etc. We leave that for the experts and encourage that it be done. Here we just wish to get at the basic servomechanism overshoot mechanism that one can evoke, which usually does not appear in conventional analyses at all. This mechanism can be used to produce (1) currents (either ion or electron or H+) moving against the voltage, (2) opposition charge densities which are then volumetrically "squeezed" to produce large overpotentials not normally connected with the charge transfer interactions at the double surfaces, and (3) specific phase shifting of currents.
It is our contention that, by achieving proper timing of these overshoot effects in battery in ionic current resonance, one can produce an asymmetrically self-regauging battery which charges itself and also powers its load. For the purist, there are also other mechanisms involved that are still unknown, hence accounting for the "adjustments" and "tuning" that usually must be meticulously performed.
For an equal charge, the ions in the lead ion current (say, in lead sulfate) are several hundred thousand times more massive than the electrons in the electron current. They are on the order of more than 200 times more massive than the H+ ions in that ionic current. Further, the ionic current will resonate (and probably other currents simultaneously as well, since resonance in this case probably represents a coordinated resonance among different currents) as shown by Ahluktenko, usually in the multi-megahertz range. Since the battery is so highly nonlinear in its dynamics, subharmonic and harmonic resonance effects also are present, particularly subharmonic resonances. We believe that it is also possible to couple and synchronize molecular oscillations, ion current oscillations, and material lattice oscillations in the electrodes, in harmonic and subharmonic oscillation fashion, but that is a quite different subject. Such more subtle (but can be powerful) effects may occur only after several minutes to several hours of operation in the "normal resonance" condition.