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Complete Bedini SG Book!

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  • Hi Gary,

    Thanks for all your answers!

    #1 Ah vs Wh / COP
    My SSG running in generator (common ground) mode will consistently get an electrical COP over 1 in amp hours. However, if you take voltage into account and compare the watt hours, it comes out a little under a COP of 1.
    I’ve read through the results on your website of your SSG and also started reading a bit about the difference between Ah and Wh, to have a better understanding of the two and thus being able to understand which one is important in which situation/comparison.
    I understand the Ah COP calculation of 1.25 you make (not including mechanical work). However, you say that if you compare Wh, you end up under a COP of 1.
    I would say that it is the COP over 1 for the Wh (or actually work done / Joules) that we’re after and the Ah COP is not so interesting. But apart from that, I tried to calculate an energy (in Joules) COP based on the info on your website and I end up with a COP higher than 1, not lower, see attachment. Did I make a mistake in my calculation?

    #2 Swapping primary / secondary battery
    When I repeatedly swap the batteries back and forth, it takes a little longer each cycle to recharge the charge battery.
    I’m a bit confused now with your statement quoted above compared to what you said about this in post #218. Maybe the confusing arose based on my initial (or John’s) choosing of wording:
    When in post #217 I referred to John saying “you run them both down” (when swapping primary and secondary), I did not mean that both batteries would be damaged, but that you empty them both out eventually. Now this seems in line with what you state in the above mentioned quote.

    #3a 1-Ohm resistor experiment
    I thought I ordered a 1-Ohm 0.6W resistor and a 0.5-Ohm 6.5W resistor, but it seems that I accidentally only ordered the latter one. So I put the 0.5-Ohm 6.5W resistor between the output wires and started my SG:
    -Neon bulbs where off (as they should)
    -After +/-1.5min the resistor became luke warm. After +/-3min it was warm. After +/-5min it was hot, could not touch it for very long anymore.

    Since this was 6.5W 0.5-Ohm resistor, I expect that the 1-Ohm 0.6W resistor would have gotten hot way quicker.
    I just finished DVD 25. In that DVD John tells about the flickering / intensity of the neon bulb being an indication of how well the circuit is tuned. In order to have more validation /analyzing data for the results as mentioned with my 0.5-Ohm resistor, I disconnected the resistor and filmed the “disco” of Neon bulbs for a bit. The video can be seen here:

    I do realize that it is not recommended to run the SG disconnected, don’t intend to do it if not necessary
    As mentioned in earlier posts, I have matched resistors & transistors in my circuit and tuned my SG with a variable resistor, which is still in there.

    #3b Amperage in radiant mode
    There is a small amount of current along with the radiant spike and also there is an electric field around the conductor that the sniffer coil can detect.
    I think I got a bit confused by the DVDs when John is mentioning that the output is current less / a 1-Ohm resistor should not heat up.
    Although voltage peaks are very narrow/short, when the frequency is high enough the momentary current that is accompanied by it will heat up the resistor eventually. I remember reading statements somewhere that putting an amperage meter on the output side would not correctly indicate the amperage. My question is: why not? If a amperage meter can be hooked up on the input side, giving an amperage reading of the pulses drawn from the primary battery, why can I not do the same on the output side?

    Thanks for your time.

    Best regards,

    P.S. still building the capacitor dump circuit, if I have it up and running I’ll post on the other forum thread where we’re talking about that circuit.


    • Hi Rodolphe,

      Forget about the voltages at rest. The power taken from the battery during discharge has to be calculated using the average voltage under load. Looking at the discharge curve you will see that it starts out at about 12.35 volts and ends at about 12.09 volts at a constant 1 amp rate for exactly one hour. (12.35 + 12.09) / 2 = 12.22 ave voltage. 12.22 volts x 1 AH = 12.22 watt hours pulled from the battery. or 12.22 watt hours x 3600 joules / watt hour = 43.99 KJ of energy supplied during discharge.

      Then using the ave 1.6 amp draw on the run battery to power the SSG during recharging, the average voltage supplied under load by the run battery is 12.53 volts just as you calculated. The 1.6 amp draw was measured maybe 3 times during the discharge with my old analog FET-VOM so is only an approximation! I rounded the 29 minutes to 30 minutes or 1/2 hour at 1.6 amps to get the .8 AH draw. So 12.53 volts x .8 AH = 10.024 watt hours to recharge. (10.024 x 3600 = 36.086 KJ)

      So 12.22 WH / 10.024 WH = 1.22 COP in watt hours. Keep in mind that I started with fully charged batteries and had two batteries in parallel for the run battery which reduced the voltage drop while running the SSG. The higher the supply voltage, the faster the SSG runs and the faster it will recharge another battery. And the method and meter I used to measure the current draw from the run battery is probably not accurate and serves as only an approximation. And as you noted, the calculations leave out the mechanical power delivered to the two fans. Therefore I think that i can safely say the machine was delivering well over a COP of 1 all things considered.

      Every time I've run the machine continuously (using equally matched batteries) and swap batteries when the charge battery reaches 15.3 volts, I've found that the time to recharge takes a little longer each cycle. This tells me that the electrical COP is still a little less than 1. Doing this also doesn't allow the batteries to rest or normalize and absorb the charge. And of course all the mechanical power produced is unmeasured as well. One other consideration is that the batteries should be well matched to the machine and operated at their C20 rate of discharge. For my machine that requires a 32 AH battery for running in generator mode and a a 24 AH battery when running in radiant mode. And in radiant mode my machine takes approximately twice as long to charge this size battery as it does in generator mode.

      Don't worry about the 1 ohm resister test. I think the only reason John mentions this is to make sure you're not driving the primary circuit with too much current. When built to John's specs, the SSG in radiant mode should only draw about 175 ma per coil winding when properly tuned. With a seven power wire coil that would be not over 1.22 amp draw on the primary. In generator mode 250 ma per winding is considered normal for about 1.75 amps for your coil.

      The sampling rate of a digital VOM causes the readings to jump all over the place when trying to read a rapidly pulsing dc current. An analog meter will supposedly average out the pulses and give a more accurate reading, but even this is an approximation at best when used on the input. And on the output side the voltage spikes are so high and so short lived that the analog meter can't read them either. In fact, the meter will absorb and kill a large percentage of the radiant energy which greatly reduces the charge rate anyway. The results of trying to measure the output this way is meaningless and inaccurate. If you look at the charge curve I posted on my website you can see a large spike and then voltage drop about 1/3 of the way up the curve. That's where I momentarily inserted an analog ammeter to measure the current draw from the run battery. If it causes that big of a disruption to the run circuit, think how much greater the effect would be if done on the output side!


      • Hi Gary,

        Thanks for your answers!

        I'll post more elaborately (at the end of) upcoming week. To do a better verification of my SG i finally bought a battery that I used at the input (instead of the power supply). Also took some amperage measurements at the input, did re-tuning and took new scope measurements of the H-wave/shape with my scope. Will post it all here to discuss with you in a couple of days.

        Best regards,