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Advanced ZFM Explorations Part 3

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  • Advanced ZFM Explorations Part 3

    The Ohmic Quandary

    The last thread (Part 2) ended on a positive note demonstrating that with proper tuning the overall ZFM efficiency could easily be pushed to the 50+% level with the 6 pole rotor and three coil (bifilar strand configuration). Certainly the lessons learned in this three coil effort could be applied to the two pole coil and four pole rotor configuration to improve its performance to a higher level.

    All that aside, one experiment that was not included in the prior thread was the single wire versus bifilar comparison for the 6 pole three coil bifilar configuration, so this thread is devoted to the direction of experimenting with various coils and multifilar coil strands. The Bedini/Cole association lasted many years and certainly created a synergy of innovation between them. John B was a prodigious experimenter with a passion for physical results and minimal technical documentation - his passion was centered in the exploration and discovery, while Cole, ever the experimenter, did understand the value of documentation and its importance to future replications.

    R Cole produced a schematic of a coil configuration experiment that took a quadfilar strand Coil wind and proceeded with an experiment that at a given voltage tested the various amperages in parallel of each added strand to the coil. The experimental results are somewhat mind blowing in that while the overall resistances of each parallel strand addition were calculated in the classical method the overall operating amperages for each strand addition were not. Contrary to expectation.

    Here is his data sheet.

    Air Core Trifilar.jpg

    So this intriguing information from R Cole's experimentation triggered a "what if" question and it was applied to two experiments with the existing 6 Pole ZFM. Here is a schematic of the basic ZFM configuration used in these experiments.

    6Pole Coil Config.jpg

    EXPERIMENT 1 Single Strand
    Three bifilar coils, #20AWG, with 1.1 Ohm resistance per single coil strand with 6 pole rotor. Connect only one strand per coil in series. Total series R equals 3.4 Ohms.
    RPM Load(gr) Output(w) Volts Amps Input(w) Eff(%)
    2905 0 0.00 24.04 0.42 10.10 0.0
    2572 460 7.70 24.07 0.75 18.05 42.7
    2069 1020 13.74 24.07 1.29 31.05 44.2
    1636 1500 15.97 24.04 1.73 41.59 38.4
    Experiment 2 Bifilar Strand
    Same config as first experiment, but with coil strands in parallel with 0.55 Ohm resistance per coil. Coils wired in series for a total R of 1.7 Ohms.
    RPM Load(gr) Output(w) Volts Amps Input(w) Eff(%)
    3029 0 0.00 24.02 0.43 10.39 0.0
    2717 500 8.84 24.03 0.82 19.70 44.9
    2339 1050 15.99 24.05 1.33 31.99 50.0
    2035 1520 20.13 24.06 1.75 42.11 47.8
    These two experiments were run on three separate days with all the resulting data demonstrating the same type of behavior and values. Certainly, these preliminary experiments support the results of at least two parts of Cole's data and his supposition that the coil wiring configuration yields results that do not conform to the classical methods of measurement or calculation. So is Ohm's Law out the window or are there other unidentified influences at play with the ZFM???

    In a nutshell, these two experiments demonstrate that changing the overall resistance of a coil by 50% with equal length strands, and then wiring the remaining motor coils in series increases the performance in terms of speed (RPM) with only a minor change in total Input Power. This is way over my primitive level of understanding for at least the time being.

    There is a video of the above experiments in the works - unedited version is well over 15 minutes in length due to a lot of dead time taking the Load readings. I will post this at a later date when a decision is reached to post an edited or unedited version.

    This new project, with associated experiments, should keep me occupied for some time and expect to initiate more of this work later this summer.

    Thank you for your kind attention,
    Yaro Stanchak


    "The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you." -Neil Degrasse Tyson

  • #2
    Hi Yaro,

    I know Ron labeled this as ocuring in a "Faraday" motor, but I always suspected that this also occurs in the other type pulse motors as well .................. even when some iron is present. Adding extra power strands to a SSG doesn't seem to increase input current in a linear ratio either. I always assumed this was due to a mutual inductance effect with pulsed currents? And I don't know if it matters or not if each strand has an individual switching device or if only one device is used for several strands. Lots of room for experimentation.

    When my grandson and I built the two stage mechanical oscillator, we tried several different configurations on the SSG Bedini wheel we were driving it with. The coil was 3 winds of 130' # 20 wire and 1 strand of 130' #23 wire. These were all litzed (twisted together). We started with 2 #20 power windings, 1 #20 recovery winding, and one #23 trigger winding. Each power winding was switched by it's own MJL21194 transistor. As best I can remember, the current draw was around 1 amp and performance wasn't very good. After some experimenting, we wound up with all three 130' #20 power wires switched by one FET and a hall device and the single 130' #23 winding was used as a power recovery coil. The RPM and power output was much greater, but the current draw was about the same or slightly less!

    This has been some time ago and I didn't record measurements, so I can only speak in generalities. But I was amazed that the current draw behaved the way it did.

    Gary Hammond,


    • #3
      Hello Gary,

      Interesting results from your experiment that point out area's that can produce puzzling results that do not conform to classical expectations. There is quite a bit of room here for further in depth experimentation. Unusual that configuring your coil strands in parallel jacked up the performance without a power penalty.

      During my last experiments I did rewire the one strand config so that all the air coils were in parallel and the ZFM ran up to 4100 RPM at 1.87A at 16.1v without a load, but with very little torque in comparison to the prior two experiments. One set of transistors became hot to the touch so the experiment was stopped after documenting with a short video. The scope wave pattern was also very different with the parallel coils. I will have to try this again before I take down this ZFM config.

      It appears that the parallel strand wiring and series combination for the coils may have some interesting benefits to the ZFM configuration and performance.


      "The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you." -Neil Degrasse Tyson


      • #4
        ZFM Experiments 1 and 2 Videos

        So as a follow-up to the first post of this thread I decided to post the two unedited versions from the Experiments as described in the first post. The deadtimes in the videos are a bit of a distraction, but I thought that the process of doing the motor testing, while doing a simultaneous video of it would be useful. Challenging at times...

        Experiment 1

        Experiment 2

        So these videos do provide a look at what happens when the coil configuration is modified for the ZFM. A Big Deal, to some that watch carefully. The major point here is that the addition of another equal length strand to the coil in a parallel mode, then in series with the other coils improves the performance, as in noticeably. Major point here is that the resistance has been halved, yet the input power remains relatively the same. Really?

        According to Bedini/Cole, this unusual behavior continues as one adds wire strands, at least up to four. This modification and subsequent improved performance of the ZFM does not make sense, particularly when one considers that the parallel resistance continues to be reduced while the input amperage remains the approximately the same!

        Hence, the Ohmic quandary, specifically when parallel is combined with series. This certainly promotes further investigation for those that are skilled... in the unknown. What a laugh...



        "The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you." -Neil Degrasse Tyson


        • #5
          ZFM Experiment 3 Video Parallel Coils

          After reviewing the prior Videos (Experiments1 and 2} it became obvious that the comparison needed a Parallel circuit Experiment for the single strand coils to complete the experimental set.

          The overall motor resistance came in at 0.4ohms, rather low. So it seemed prudent to perform the experiment with single wire mode to evaluate the operational characteristics (amperage draw) created by the wiring modification. After a couple of preliminary runs at 16v the voltage was increased to 20v and then subsequently to 24 volts. A brief foray into the higher voltages yielded amperages that were a bit too high for the BiPolar Switch board due to the overheating of a couple of transistors. The suspicion was that in Bifilar parallel mode the operating amperage may be way too high for comfort, at least using the classical approach.

          So, for both voltages the acceleration to speed (no load) was fairly slow, with the speed continuing to climb for an extended period of time.

          Test1 20.01v 2.23A 5600RPM
          Test2 24.01v 2.61A 6780RPM

          The video demonstrated a couple of interesting characteristics:
          1) Motor amperage remains relatively the same throughout the length of the acceleration curve
          2) The oscope amperage trace rises very rapidly and has a squarish shape.
          3) The oscope voltage trace depicts a sinusoidal shape. It appears that the BEMF nearly totally overrides the power supply voltage. This was further checked by operating with only one firing polarity verifying this observation.
          4) This configuration does not have the bottom end torque as the configurations of the prior Experiments.
          5) The motor coils did not overheat during the length of test run.
          6) A previous day's torque test, with a 1000gr load at 24 volts, brought the motor to a stall at 3.2A
          7) There may be other quirks at the higher voltages, but for now we are good.

          So, I am done with this config for now and maybe moving on to other mysteries. But then, the Bifilar mode with all the coils in parallel beckons - does it conform to the prior ways, hmmm, maybe or not.

          Happy Summer,
          Last edited by Yaro1776; 06-27-2020, 03:02 AM. Reason: Fleshing it all out

          "The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you." -Neil Degrasse Tyson